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2011 quality engineer comprehensive knowledge: mechanical product inspection
Releaseman:Yeziliang      Browse number:679Times    Key Words:mechanical product inspection     Time of issue:2010-12-30

2011 quality qualification exam comprehensive knowledge of the tutorial: mechanical product inspection

 

Second, different types of product quality inspection

 

(a) mechanical product quality inspection

 

1. The mechanical characteristics of the products of mechanical products is the basis of industrial products, its product USES very extensive, including steel, electromechanical, transportation, transportation, electrician, electronics, light industry, food, petrochemical, energy, mining, metallurgical industry, building material, construction, environmental protection, medicine, sanitation, aviation, spaceflight, Marine, military, and agricultural and other industries, various fields.

 

Mechanical product regardless of size shape, the structure, how to change, is made up of several scattered, with independent use function of manufacturing unit (part) composition has some or a local function components (part) or have a comprehensive performance of whole (machine assembly). Due to mechanical product use differ in thousands ways, the structure performance is different.

 

Mechanical product features are:

 

(1) the most basic unit of mechanical products is parts, parts are usually made from raw materials, the microstructural composition (ros) and various performance (physical, chemical, and mechanical properties) is an important part of inner quality requirements.

 

(2) mechanical whole products by several units (parts) organic set of macro structure form, can generally be divided into fixed part and detachable parts. Parts and whole machine part is not fixed disassemble, The machine adopts the detachable parts can be appropriate methods, the integral decomposition for local or by local assembly combination for whole.

 

(3) mechanical whole products can divide again fixing parts and moving parts (part), mechanical motion is through the use function of the moving parts in straight lines, plane, space motion realization.

 

(4) mechanical products usually by different methods and load. Its parts regardless of size and shape to withstand the external force, therefore must have the proper strength and rigidity, such as performance requirements.

 

2. Of mechanical products main technical performance requirements

 

(1) parts

 

(1) the chemical composition of metal materials (metal element content and nonmetallic inclusion content),

 

2 the microstructure of metal materials,

 

3 the main structural type size, geometric parameter, shape and position of tolerance and surface roughness,

 

Metallic and non-metallic materials (4) of the mechanical properties,

 

5 parts and the comprehensive performance for parts of the special requirements, such as replacement, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, ageing resistance, etc.

 

(2) components and equipment

 

(1) movement part (PCS) flexibility (rotation, sliding, swing, vibration), fixed part (PCS) connected soundness,

 

2 the interchangeability with parts,

 

(3) exterior quality and structure is mainly the size of,

 

4 the input and output power, speed, torque, static balance and finish all kinds of different assignments function, technical properties and suitability.

 

3. Mechanical product inspection and test methods

 

(1) the mechanical parts inspection

 

Chemical analysis: (1) the same process materials.

 

2 physical test:

 

A) mechanical testing: hardness, tensile test, compression test, torsion test, bending test, impact test, the fatigue test; etc.

 

B) NDT: ray detection, ultrasonic flaw detection, magnetic powder flaw detection and penetrant flaw detection, eddy current inspection etc.,

 

C) metallurgical microstructure inspection: by optical microscope inspection.

 

(3) geometric measurement: dimension precision and shape and position tolerances of measurement.

 

(2) product performance test

 

Product performance test is in accordance with the prescribed procedures and requirements for product basic functions and different using conditions of adaptability and its ability to check and measure to assess product performance meet the requirements of the degree.

 

Different products its performance requirements are different, the content, requirements and methods also varies. Just mechanical product, product performance test mainly includes:

 

(1) function test: basic product function and use performance through experiment to access data. If the car's speed, load, consumption rate; Locomotive haulage power, speed, fuel consumption quantity, braking force and the distance, the running smoothness and stability, etc.

 

(2) structure mechanics test: structural mechanics experiments are generally used to withstand dynamic and static load of product, carries on the mechanical properties test. When testing simulated outside force state of the static and dynamic testing, test, often to load the provisions of load value, loading time or until structural damage to detect its internal stress and structural strength, verify that product design and parameter calculation accuracy.

 

3 idling test: products in no-load conditions, in accordance with the test requirements (time, speed and displacement, temperature, pressure, etc.) inspection, testing and evaluation each moving part work flexibility, stability, accuracy, reliability, security, check its control, driver, cooling and measurement system works.

 

4 load test: according to test specification stipulated in the test methods, under loading condition test, evaluation products of various performance parameters, Check each moving part of reliability, safety, Check control, driver, cooling and measurement of each system work conditions.

 

5 human adaptability tests: any mechanical product use and operation can produce the influence of human body and personal safety problems, so the body inspect mechanical adaptability tests is the influence of human body and human influence on mechanical operation of tolerance level and perceive the comfort levels. Such as mechanical acceleration, vibration, shock, noise, insulating properties such as.

 

6 safety, reliability and durability test: safety for mechanical products especially for rotating machinery and road, rail transport machinery is very important, ensure mechanical normal operation does not occur endanger personal safety and mechanical damage. Safety test is measured mechanical driving not occurring topple, sidetracks and etc, technical critical conditions, reliability and durability test is in the prescribed time and tests of the test procedure and method in the long-term actual use mechanical operation conditions, its working conditions, properties change and fault and abrasion and damage.

 

Indirectly affect the environment condition test: according to various mechanical product different environmental conditions, in analog or local simulation environment conditions for product performance adaptability to the environment of, sustainable and stability.

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